Repenser la gestion de la diversité religieuse et culturelle entre le Liban et le Canada

Les cas d’étude et de comparaison entre le Canada et le Liban ne sont pas récents, et suscitent encore aujourd’hui l’engouement de plusieurs chercheurs, vu que ces deux pays sont marqués par la diversité religieuse et culturelle. Une diversité qui pourrait constituer un terreau de dissensions, ou une pratique et un horizon de convivialité et de paix.

Au Liban, des individus et des organisations non-gouvernementales revendiquent des changements dans la gestion de la diversité. Au Canada, avec les revendications particulières de communautés religieuses et culturelles, ainsi que l’intégration de l’expression du phénomène religieux dans l’espace public comme dans les secteurs académiques, médiatique et juridico-politique, les défis de non-discrimination sont multiples.

En fait, tant au Liban qu’au Canada, on cherche continuellement à repenser la place du religieux dans l’espace public et à réformer le système de gestion des composantes de ces deux pays, tellement différents mais aussi semblables à bien des égards.

(Extrait de mon introduction à la 4e table-ronde du colloque “Les communautés de l’Etat du Liban” à l’USEK, 22 mars 2019)

Au colloque “Les communautés de l’Etat du Liban” à l’USEK

Ce fut un plaisir de revoir et de rencontrer des collègues du Québec, et de modérer la 4e table ronde du colloque “Les communautés de l’Etat du Liban” organisé par le Centre de Recherche sur les Minorités au Moyen-Orient (RCMME) et le Centre de Recherche Société, Droit et Religions de l’Université de Sherbrooke. Avec les intervenants Mirna Bouzeid, Pierre Noel et Claude Gelinas. Un grand merci au Prof. Sami Aoun, ainsi qu’aux P. Jean Akiki et Georges Yarak pour l’invitation. Certes, les perspectives comparatives entre le Canada et le Liban devraient se poursuivre vu qu’elles permettent les décentrements nécessaires afin de repenser la gestion de la diversité.

CAFCAW Meeting in Jordan: Working for the Renewal of Religious Thought in the Arab World

It’s a wrap! #CAFCAW meeting @Dead Sea Marriott Resort & Spa, Jordan, January 2019 
لتجديد الفكر والخطاب الديني في العالم العربي وتعزيز الوجود الفعال المسيحي والعمل من أجل مواطنة الوحدة في التنوع وكرامة الإنسان

Dr. Atef Gendy, Dr. Victor Makari, Maya Khadra, Dr. Mitri Raheb, Dr. Pamela Chrabieh, Mary Mikhael
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Make Hummus Not War: PACE Workshop for high-school students about Middle Eastern Studies at the American University in Dubai


Associate Professor of Middle Eastern Studies at AUD Dr. Pamela Chrabieh organized a workshop entitled ‘Make Hummus Not War’ for high-school students enrolled in the PACE Workshops Program and interested in Middle Eastern Studies.

According to Dr. Chrabieh: “Hummus is not just food. It tells stories of war, peace, religions-politics relations, migrations, cultural resistance and cultural appropriations. It tells stories of Southwestern Asians’ communities, nations and glocal (global-local) identities. This is how I introduced high-school students to Middle Eastern Studies and to my teaching methods. Students used all their senses to learn more about this much needed field of study, through interactive and engaging dialogue sessions, collaborative learning, and experiential/visceral activities by making and eating hummus.”

As Dr. Chrabieh stated: “I have been using food (and food anthropology) as one of my many teaching methods since 2004, in Canada and Lebanon mainly, and since I joined the American University in Dubai in 2014. The “Make Hummus not War” workshop is a shorter version of a series of activities I usually organize for my Cultures of the Middle East and Religions of the Middle East courses, and these activities have started to be recognized in the UAE as innovations in Education – ‘The Diplomacy of the Dish Festival’ I organized in Fall 2015 was one of the officially registered activities of the UAE Innovative Week.”

Students who participated in the workshop came from the Dubai International School, Al Mawakeb School – Garhoud, the International School of Choueifat and the Dubai National School. Following the workshop, most students wrote in their feedback forms they highly appreciated learning more about the region and the complex religions-cultures-politics dynamics by focusing on a case study, working in teams to communicate individual and collective learning experiences, and learning through doing. Furthermore, they expressed considering Middle Eastern studies – Certificate or Bachelor degree – as part of their future academic journey.


Collaborative Learning in a University Classroom

Dr. Pamela Chrabieh shares her methods used in her series of workshops and class activities
Dr. Pamela Chrabieh, Assistant Professor of Middle Eastern studies at AUD has a different approach to teaching. She focuses on Collaborative Learning, and explains below, how she applies it in her classes, including Islamic Art and Architecture, Religions of the Middle East and Religions of the World courses.


Collaborative learning is a method of teaching and learning in which students are invested in their own learning while they work together; diversity is celebrated, all contributions valued (students and teachers) and skills are acquired for resolving conflicts when they arise. This method differs from traditional teaching approaches because students do not compete with each other individually but learn how to factor in each other’s’ ideas, how to relate to their peers as they work together in group settings (interpersonal development), how to enhance their social skills, and how to search for common grounds between worldviews and practices while they learn to respect the differences.

In a world where being a team player and a sociable agent is often a key part of business success, collaborative learning is very useful, and is also perceived as an esteemed means to an end – that Higher Education is not only about delivering-sharing a content; “it’s about cultivating habits of mind that are the underpinnings of deeper scholarship”, “it’s about empowering and enabling students’ resilience – how do you look to your neighbor as a resource, how do you test your own theories, how do you understand if you’re on the right track or the wrong track?” (Monique DeVane).

According to Natalie Nixon, Director of the Strategic Design MBA at Philadelphia University and Principal of Figure 8 Thinking, LLC, there are five reasons why collaboration is important for the growth of one’s business:

  1. Self-awareness: the honestly about your strengths and weaknesses when working with others can force you to ask for help when necessary and be brazen about how you can help others.
  2. Scale: more effective problem solving happens when you combine resources in talent, experience, finances and infrastructure. In other terms, understand that your individuality is a part of a greater whole.
  3. Creative Abrasion: abrasion is a process of wearing down through friction. We typically associate friction with something negative, but friction in its purest form, is energy. So why not convert that energy that comes from working with people who are different from you, into something positive?
  4. Take the long view: sometimes things don’t work out well when you collaborate with others, no matter how hard you try, how patient you are, and how well you listen. But does that necessarily mean you never attempt again to work with that organization? Take the long view about perceived failures… While an initial project may not do well, the partnership may still be salvageable.
  5. Learn, learn and learn some more! Collaborating propels your firm to become a learning organization, a popular phrase right now that refers to organizations which have cultures of ongoing learning, and structures that support that learning through safety nets for failure, and opportunities for growth in all aspects of employees’ lives.
In the Architecture and Islam workshop I designed for the Fall 2015 and Spring 2016 semesters (MEST 329 Islamic Art and Architecture), members of a group are required to articulate their competencies, therefore distill what they are great at – and what they do poorly (sketching, researching, analyzing, working with software…) – while gathering, analyzing and presenting a written and visual content on mosques, mausoleums and palaces built during the Umayyad, Abbasid, Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal empires, as well as on contemporary architecture of mosques and futuristic models.

In the Christians in Southwestern Asia workshop for instance (MEST 350 Religions of the Middle East), students combine their individual research projects (phase I) on the current situations of Christians in Iran, Lebanon, Palestine, Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Egypt, GCC, etc. and produce a common discourse (phase II) based on interdependency. Following the workshop, they realize that a group, an institution, a society thrive where there are diverse and complimentary identities and systems that enhance each other’s lives and management.

Sometimes students work together according to certain interests, but I usually try to mix them so they would learn to work with different types of people. Class activities’ goals as designed for the WLDC 301 Religions of the World course include in particular students from different religious/non-religious backgrounds working together to identify what could be complimentary about their different worldviews, and the intra-religious and inter-religious differences they are tackling – when studying together for instance the subject of Kashrut in Orthodox Judaism, Conservative Judaism and Reform Judaism, comparing Kosher with Halal, and drawing on each other’s perceptions and experiences.

Sharing information and dialogue inevitably help students to acknowledge cultural/religious differences and better understand other cultures, religious and points of view, especially when the personal story sharing component is included in the plenary session. Collaborative activities indeed involve the construction of new ideas based on personal and shared foundations of past experiences and understandings – applying here some of the principles of constructivism. When the WLDC 301 students are asked to search individually, then collectively for the definitions of exclusivism, inclusivism and pluralism as three of the main perspectives/positions in theology of religions, they are also asked to reflect on the content of the definitions by drawing back on their own experiences.

Each time a student collaborates with others, he/she finds himself/herself in a setting that optimizes his/her capacities to extend beyond the comfort zone, grow a variety of intelligences (theory of multiple intelligences by Howard Garner), acquire a deeper understanding of content, increase overall achievement in grades, and in turn, stretch the boundaries of the classroom. According to Garner, we can improve education by addressing the multiple intelligences of our students: verbal-linguistic, mathematical-logical, musical, visual-spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist and existential.

Most students become usually highly motivated to remain on task, to actively construct content, to take ownership of their own learning and to pursue the search for knowledge, as indicated in their end-of-semester qualitative evaluations of the courses. It goes without saying that encouraging student-student thinking is paired with the development of strategies necessary for the inclusion of critical-level thought. Clear questions are identified at the outset and I make sure to show how these questions relate to students’ interests and abilities, and to the teaching goals and learning outcomes of the courses.

Furthermore, collaborative learning is used in conjunction with other educational methods and techniques, and it certainly helps students construct knowledge rather than only reproduce a series of ‘facts’- regurgitate information. Through problem-solving, inquiry-based, story sharing and experiential activities, students are challenged to actively engage in the learning process. While being guided by the professor, they are provided with tools to formulate and test their ideas, draw conclusions and inferences, pool and convey their knowledge, articulate and defend their ideas, create their own conceptual frameworks and not rely solely on an expert’s or a text’s framework, and link their existing knowledge and real-world experience to the content of the course and class activities’ goals.

As I see it, it’s about intellectual gymnastics in a dialogic setting where positive interdependence is valued and experienced.